Water Softener Cation Resin
Cation Exchange Resin Technical Data
CQ WSR 1000 is a high capacity premium grade bead from conventional gel polystyrene sulphonate cation exchange resin, designed for use in industrial or household water conditioning equipment. It removes the hardness ions, e.g. calcium and magnesium, replacing them with sodium ions. When the resin bed is exhausted and hardness ions begin to break through, capacity is restored by regeneration with common salt.
The capacity obtained depends largely on the amount of salt in the regeneration. CQ WSR 1000 is also capable of removing dissolved iron, manganese, and also suspended matter by virtue of the filtering action of the bed.
CQ WSR 1000 is in compliance with the U.S. Food and Drugs Code of Federal Regulations section 21, paragraph 173.25
Physical and Chemical Characteristics
Cation Resin Operating PerformanceThe operating performance of CQ WSR 1000 sodium cycle depends on:
1) The amount and concentration of the regenerant used
2) Total hardness of the water to be treated and its sodium content
3) The flow rate of the influent water through the bed.
Performance is usually assessed in terms of residual hardness in the treated water (traditionally expressed as ppm of CaCO3, where 1 ppm corresponds to a divalent cation concentration of 0.02 meq./l). In municipal water softening, low regeneration levels and high removal efficiency are usually required. Acceptable water quality is usually obtained by a split-stream operation in which a fully softened stream is blended with the raw to give the final product. For industrial use, a suitable treated water, with less than 5 ppm of hardness, can be obtained with a level of 70 to 80 kg salt per cubic metre (4.5 to 5 lb/ft3) of resin. If the softening is being carried out in order to feed a conventional low pressure boiler, where requirements are for less than 1 ppm of hardness, at least double this level of regenerant will be required.
Hardness leakage under the standard operating conditions is normally less than 1% of the total hardness of the influent water, and the working capacities are not significantly affected unless the raw water contains more than about 25% of its exchangeable cations as sodium (or other univalent) ions. In residential softening, residual hardness at these comparatively low levels is not usually required, and quite high flowrates are often in use with negligible effect on the operating capacity. It is worth remembering, however, that the most efficient use of regenerant can be achieved by using high concentrations of salt, and giving adequate contact time. The subsequent displacement of spent regenerant from the bed should also be slow, but the final removal of excess salt should be carried out at normal service flow rates.
Regeneration of Cation Resin
Cation Resin Hydraulic Characteristics
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